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高考生物必背知识点总结【四】
作者:admin 发布于:2019-02-23 22:18 点击量:

高考生物必背知识点总结【四】
 
37.免疫异常有三种:过敏反应、自身免疫病、免疫缺陷病。
 
38.所有细胞器中,核糖体分布最广(在核外膜、内质网膜上、线粒体、叶绿体内都有分布)。
 
39.生长素≠生长激素。
 
40.线粒体、叶绿体内的DNA也能转录、翻译产生蛋白质。
 
41.细胞分化的实质是基因的选择性表达,指都是由受精卵分裂过来的细胞,结构、功能不同的细胞中,DNA相同,而转录出的RNA不同,所翻译的蛋白质不同。42.精原细胞(特殊的体细胞)通过复制后形成初级精母细胞,通过有丝分裂形成更多的精原细胞。
 
43.tRNA上有3个暴露在外面的碱基,而不是只有3个碱基,是由多个碱基构成的单链RNA。
 
44.观察质壁分离实验时,细胞无色透明,如何调节光线?缩小光圈或用平面反光镜。
 
45.抗体指免疫球蛋白,还有抗毒素、凝集素。但干扰素不是抗体,干扰素是病毒侵入细胞后产生的糖蛋白,具有抗病毒、抗细胞分裂和免疫调节等多种生物学功能。
 
46。基因工程中切割目的基因和质粒的限制酶可以不同。
 
47.基因工程中导入的目的基因通常考虑整合到核DNA,形成的生物可看作杂合子(Aa),产生配子时,可能含有目的基因。
 
48.寒冷刺激时,仅甲状腺激素调节而言,垂体细胞表面受体2种,下丘脑细胞表面受体有1种。
 
49.建立生态农业(桑基鱼塘),能提高能量的利用率,而不是提高能量传递效率。人工生态系统(农田、城市)中人的作用非常关键。
 
50.免疫活性物质有:淋巴因子(白细胞介素、干扰素)、抗体、溶菌酶。
 
51.外植体:由活植物体上切取下来以进行培养的那部分组织或器官叫做外植体。
 
52.去分化=脱分化。
 
53.消毒与灭菌的区别:灭菌,是指杀灭或者去处物体上所有微生物,包括抵抗力极强的细菌芽孢在内。注意,是微生物,不仅包括细菌,还有病毒,真菌,支原体,衣原体等。消毒,是指杀死物体上的病原微生物,也就是可能致病的微生物啦,细菌芽孢和非病原微生物可能还是存活的。
 
 
 
37. There are three kinds of immune abnormalities: allergic reaction, autoimmune disease and immunodeficiency disease.
 
38. Ribosomes are most widely distributed in all organelles (in the adventitia, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and chloroplasts).
 
39. Auxin growth hormone.
 
40. DNA in mitochondria and chloroplasts can also transcribe and translate to produce proteins.
 
41. Cell differentiation is essentially the selective expression of genes. It refers to cells that are divided by fertilized eggs. In cells with different structures and functions, DNA is the same, while RNA transcribed is different and proteins translated are different. 42. Spermatogonia (special somatic cells) form primary spermatocytes by replication and more spermatogonia by mitosis.
 
43.There are three exposed bases on tRNA, not only three bases, which are single-stranded RNA composed of multiple bases.
 
44. When observing the plasmic wall separation experiment, the cells are colorless and transparent. How to adjust the light? Reduce the aperture or use a planar reflector.
 
45. Antibodies refer to immunoglobulins, as well as antitoxins and lectins. But IFN is not an antibody. IFN is a glycoprotein produced after virus invades cells. It has many biological functions such as anti-virus, anti-cell division and immune regulation.
 
46. Restriction enzymes for cutting target genes and plasmids in genetic engineering can be different.
 
47. Target genes introduced into genetic engineering are usually considered to be integrated into nuclear DNA. The organisms formed can be regarded as heterozygotes (Aa). When gametes are produced, they may contain target genes.
 
48. In terms of thyroid hormone regulation alone, there are two kinds of surface receptors on pituitary cells and one on hypothalamus cells during cold stimulation.
 
49. Establishing eco-agriculture (mulberry fish pond) can improve energy utilization, not energy transfer efficiency. The role of human in artificial ecosystem (farmland, city) is very important.
 
50. Immunoactive substances are lymphokines (interleukin, interferon), antibodies and lysozymes.
 
Explant: The part of tissue or organ that is cut off from living plants for culture is called an explant.
 
52. Dedifferentiation = dedifferentiation.
 
53. The difference between disinfection and sterilization: sterilization refers to the killing or removal of all microorganisms on objects, including highly resistant bacterial spores. Note that it's microorganisms, not only bacteria, but also viruses, fungi, mycoplasma, chlamydia and so on. Disinfection refers to the killing of pathogenic microorganisms on objects, that is, pathogenic microorganisms. Bacterial spores and non-pathogenic microorganisms may still survive.
 



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